Openning Keynote: Brazilian Strategy for the South Atlantic - the Concept of Blue Amazon
Rear Admiral Flávio Augusto Viana Rocha - Director, Navy Social Communications Centre, Brazilian Navy

The South Atlantic is inherent to the very soul of Brazilian history and identity. In the first years of the struggle for independence, in the beginnings of the 19th century, it was the element that enabled the naval forces loyal to the central government to contribute decisively to avoid the disintegration of the new country. During the 20th century, it was the geographic setting in which Brazil, in support of its allies, played secondary, although important roles in the two World Wars. In the present century, it is useful to see how historical and new elements have helped to agglutinate the strategic relevance of the immense surrounding maritime areas in the concept of the ‘Blue Amazon’, which guides most of Brazil's strategic posture, supported by its Navy.

Latin American Naval Strategy and Policy in the South Atlantic: Collaboration or Confrontation?
Dr. Carlos Alfaro Zaforteza - King's College London

The competitive exploitation of ocean resources in the South Atlantic is a matter of increasing concern for Latin American governments. Owing to their extensive exclusive economic zones, Argentina and Brazil have a stake in preserving their rights. This paper analyses the role of the two countries´ naval strategy and policy in the articulation of a response to external actors. It addresses the incentives for cooperation and the causes of confrontation in preserving these maritime riches. In this context, the Brazilian special relationship with African countries and Chinese activities are of particular relevance. This case study stresses the valuable contribution that navies can make to maritime policies.

Regional Challenges to the Maritime Security in the South Atlantic
Dr. André Panno Beirão - Postgraduate Programme in Maritime Studies, Naval War College, Brazil

The South Atlantic scenario, although it’s relatively more peaceful than other maritime regions, has also faced new challenges; mainly in security claims. For instance, the region known as the "Gulf of Guinea" is one of those scenarios that demand special attention. But, what do the regional actors, indeed, feel like a security problem? Regional approaches to the point are essential for cooperative actions. 

Russia, China and the Southern Oceans - Ambition and Her Politics
Peter Roberts - Senior Research Fellow, Sea Power & Maritime Studies, RUSI

Russia and China both feature the southern oceans in their national security strategies, despite both being Northern Hemisphere states and without a significant, direct economic draw for them to do so.  Why is this and if it is so important to them, how are their ambitions likely to be acted out?  Should other players in the southern oceans welcome or fear a Sino-Russian intervention into a reasonably stable geo-political theatre?

The Atlantic in the 21st Century: Visions from the Southern Seas
Prof. William de Sousa Moreira – Post Graduate Programme in Maritime Studies, Naval War College, Brazil

The huge Atlantic Ocean area combined with the socio-cultural, economic, and development diversity of the bathed regions engender different political and strategic visions. The academic approach to the theme "The Atlantic in the 21st Century: Visions from the Southern Seas" aims to contribute to the understanding of these differences, to better evaluate the possibilities and the limitations of international cooperation to face maritime challenges in the way ahead.

UK Options in the South Atlantic
Dr. Martin Robson - Strategy and Security Institute, University of Exeter

Following the UK BREXIT vote there will be renewed desire and pressure for the UK to look to non-European parts of the globe for enhanced economic interaction which will inevitably also involve political discourse. The South Atlantic has long been on the agenda for the UK, albeit further down the list of priorities than other regions, and the UK has long standing interests and commitments in the region. This paper will assess UK interests in the South Atlantic, what future roles will the UK play in this important region and what relationships with the regional stakeholders may look like to allow the UK to achieve its national interests.

The EU Maritime Strategy and the South Atlantic: What Is in There for Brazil
Dr. Any Freitas - Royal United Services Institute (RUSI), King’s Brazil Institute. Team Leader, Critical Maritime Routes Monitoring, Support and Evaluation Mechanism (CRIMSON) Project

The Falkland Islands and South Atlantic Security Co-operation: A Stone in the Shoe?
Alan Charlton - Retired British Diplomat and former Ambassador to Brazil (2008-2013)

The UK sovereignty over the Falkland Islands and the enhanced UK military presence there since the war with Argentina of 1982 are complicating factors in regional consideration of South Atlantic Security. This talk, based on the speaker's experience as British Ambassador to Brazil from 2008-2013, looks at the views of the UK, Argentina and other states on the Falkland Islands and the chances of developing better regional co-operation including the Islands.

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing: a Threat to Goal 14 of the SDG
Ifesinachi Okafor-Yarwood - PhD candidate, African Leadership Centre, King's College London

Fisheries resources play a significance role in the food and nutritional security of the majority of the global population especially those in the developing world. The United Nations recognizes the import of the marine environment, which is why one of the SDGs specifically highlights the need for conserving the ocean resources. Markedly, Goal 14 of the SDG stipulates the need for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans, seas and marine resources. Similarly, fisheries play a significant role in the lives of the Gulf of Guinea population, serving as food, nutrition and income. Therefore, alongside exploring the human security implications of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, this symposium is aimed at highlighting the impracticality of the ability of the Gulf of Guinea countries to meet some, if not all of the SDGs given the current state of maritime security threats in the region.

Anglo-Brazilian Naval Relations, 1922-1977
Ludolf Waldmann Jr. - King's College London/Federal University of São Carlos

Brazil and United Kingdom have long lasting naval relations, dating at least since Brazilian Independence. During the 20th century, the relationship changed over time, with different impact on Brazilian naval matters according the different contexts. At the beginning of the century, Great Britain was a major influence and supplier for Brazilian Navy; however, after the First World War, London gradually lost its position to United States. In the Cold War, Brazilian Navy was strictly within American sphere of influence; Britain tried to recover some of its former position offering modern and prestigious warships to Brazil that were not supplied by the Americans. In late 1960s and 1970s, London was very successful in warships sales to Brazil; however, the improved relationship soon faded. This presentation tries to establish patterns of Anglo-Brazilian naval relations, as well understand the changes over time.

Brazilian Naval Strategic Thinking Evolution and Concepts of Power
José Cláudio Oliveira Macedo - PhD candidate, King's Brazil Institute

Since the end of the Cold War till the end of the first decade in the present century, Brazil has faced a number of domestic and international transformations which has influenced Navy’s roles played through that period. Internally, the creation of the Ministry of Defence in 1999 and the approval of the first National Strategy of Defence in 2008, for instance. Externally, a shift from the East-Western disputes towards more regional and multilateral concerns, as some authors argue. This study will consider not only the time frame (1985-2010), but also a broader scope of the Navy activities, which obviously includes preparation for defence, but goes beyond, with peacekeeping operations, cooperation with other navies and domestic subsidiary assignments. The research, just started, aims to establish a coherent interpretation of this evolving reality, considering mainly concepts of power, but also others like perceptions, deterrence and regional security complex.